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  1. ↑ Mound is a term that has fallen out of favor with archaeologists; in this case Tell is the more appropriate term. A Tell is defined as

    a type of archaeological site in the form of an earthen mound that results from the accumulation and subsequent erosion of material deposited by long human occupation. A tell mostly consists of architectural building materials containing a high proportion of stone, mudbrick or loam as well as (to a minor extent) domestic refuse. The distribution of this phenomenon spans from the Indus valley in the east to Central Europe in the west. There are about 50,000 visible tells in the Middle East, a testament to the long settlement of the area.

  2. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 2-3.
  3. ↑ Robert W. Bradnock, Anil Mulchandani. Rajasthan and Gujarat Handbook: The Travel Guide (PHP) pp. 276. Footprint Travel Guides. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Lawrence S. Leshnik (October, 1968). The Harappan Port at Lothal: Another View pp. 911-922. American Anthropologist (New Series, Vol. 70, No. 5).
  5. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 30-31.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Khadkikar et al. (2004). Paleoenvironments around Lothal. Journal of the Indian Geophysics Union (Vol. 8, No. 1).
  7. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 5.
  8. ↑ Bridget Allchin and F. Raymond Allchin, 1982, The rise of civilization in India and Pakistan. Cambridge world archaeology. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 243
  9. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 7-8.
  10. 10.0 10.1 S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 11.
  11. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 8.
  12. ↑ The rise of civilization in India and Pakistan by Bridget and F. Raymond Allchin, 187
  13. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 12.
  14. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 13.
  15. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 13-14.
  16. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 13-15.
  17. ↑ Ghosh, 1990, 187.
  18. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 39-40.
  19. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 39.
  20. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 41.
  21. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 43-45.
  22. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 2.
  23. ↑ India. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service (2006). Retrieved February 16, 2009.
  24. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 45.
  25. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 42.
  26. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 41-42.
  27. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 42.
  28. 28.0 28.1 S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 43.
  29. ↑ Archaeological Survey of India New Delhi. 1990s. Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India.
  30. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 31-33.
  31. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 33-34.
  32. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 35-36.
  33. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 45-47.
  34. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 46.
  35. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 46.
  36. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 47-48.
  37. 37.0 37.1 S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 11.
  38. ↑ Janyala Sreenivas. Harappan mound needs the kiss of life. The Indian Express. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
  39. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 27-28.
  40. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 28-29.
  41. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 28-29.
  42. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 17-18.
  43. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 19-21.
  44. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 23-24.
  45. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 23.
  46. ↑ S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 22.

References

  • Allchin, Bridget, and F. Raymond Allchin. 1982. The rise of civilization in India and Pakistan. Cambridge world archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521242448.
  • Archaeological Survey of India New Delhi). 1990s. Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. OCLC 73666234.
  • Bradnock, Robert W., Roma Bradnock, and Anil Mulchandani. 2001. Rajasthan & Gujarat handbook: the travel guide. Footprint handbooks. Bath: Footprint Handbooks. ISBN 9781900949927.
  • Ghosh, A. 1990. An Encyclopaedia of Indian archaeology. Leiden: E.J. Brill. ISBN 9789004092648.
  • Gupta, Swarajya Prakash. 1995. The "Lost" Sarasvati and the Indus civilization. Jodhpur: Kusumanjali Prakashan. OCLC 34113617.
  • Kenoyer, Jonathan M. 1998. Ancient cities of the Indus valley civilization. Karachi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195779400.
  • Khadikar, A.S. N. Basaviah, T. K. Gundurao and C. Rajshekhar Paleoenvironments around the Harappan port of Lothal, Gujarat, western India, in Journal of the Indian Geophysicists Union (2004). Retrieved September 1, 2008.
  • Marshall, John. 1931. Mohenjo-daro and the Indus Civilization: Being an official account of Archaeological Excavations at Mohenjo-daro carried out by the Government of India between the years 1922 and 1927. Edited by Sir John Marshall. In 3 volumes, with plan and map in colours, and 164 plates 2. London: Arthur Probsthain. OCLC 162619575.
  • Perna, Massimo, and Enrica Fiandra. 2005. Studi in onore di Enrica Fiandra: contributi di archeologia egea e vicinorientale : Napoli, 2005. Paris: de Boccard., pp. 65-103. ISBN 9782701801933.
  • Rao, Shikaripur R. 1985. Lothal, a Harappan port town: 1955 - 62 2. (1985). - XVI S., S. 269 - 711, CXXIX - CCCIV : Ill. OCLC 159844495.
  • Rao, S. R. 1973. Lothal and the Indus civilization. New York: Asia Pub. House. ISBN 9780210222782.
  • Rao, S. R. 1979. Lothal, a Harappan port town (1955-62). Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, no. 78. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. OCLC 7575628.
  • Südasien-Institut (Heidelberg), and Lawrence S. Leshnik. 1968. Sonderdrucke der Mitglieder. No. 61, The Harappan port at Lothal, another view. Heidelberg: Univ., Südasien-Inst. OCLC 73888435.

External links

All links retrieved July 25, 2018.

  • Lothal Conception.
  • A Walk through Lothal.
  • Ancient Civilizations Timeline.
  • The Harappan Civilization.
  • Ancient Artefacts.

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